Yesterday I had a great chat with Bridgette Sexton at Google Ghana and got a rundown on their experience with software talent in Africa. Most of what I heard from Bridgette confirmed and deepened the learning from my time in Ghana last month, but I learned several new things and we had a great discussion about some of the core challenges to building a strong software industry in Africa (which go well beyond the talent gap).
Let’s start with the talent gap, though. There are plenty of raw recruits out in the market, coming out of universities and other training programs with a reasonable set of web development skills (PHP, HTML, etc.). Those skills tend to be fairly shallow, though, and haven’t been honed or augmented with real-world experience. On the other side of the equation, there’s plenty of demand for software developers… but most companies need developers who have built real products, not just learned how to code in school, and those same companies tend not to have the resources to invest in the high-touch mentoring that’s needed to get a raw recruit to a developer who is ready to dive into an existing software company.
There are also plenty of people out trying to build software companies on their own – Bridgette’s seen them all across the continent – but those entrepreneurs tend to run into two challenges. First, they have no experience in shipping software. They can build software, but it often ends up as an unfinished product that can’t be taken to market; maybe they get 80% of the way there and stop, or run into an insurmountable problem, or whatever. Second, many entrepreneurs lack a deep understanding of viable software business models. Mobile app developers, for example, might want to just ship an app and start getting paid rather than looking at freemium or ad-supported models.
Part of the challenge, too, is that what constitutes a “viable software business model” in Africa is likely to be very different here than in the US, Europe, or Asia. Desktop computer usage is extremely low, and instead the communications vehicle of choice is a mobile phone. Most of those phones are feature phones (as opposed to smart phones), and companies like Google are doing some great work to make the internet more accessible on feature phones but it’s a much more fragmented environment than anywhere else I’ve been, and usage patterns look nothing like they do in the rest of the world.
I saw the beginnings of a vibrant community around software development in Nairobi, particularly around iHub and m:lab, and Bridgette said that there are many others around Africa working on solving what is a very hard and complex problem. There may be opportunities – some are in discussion – to bring the various actors together in a more structured way. Getting investors into the equation here is key, especially investors interested in providing seed stage capital to promising startups.
The scenarios I’m working on in both Ghana and Kenya have the potential to contribute to some of these challenges. No single organization is going to solve all of the challenges, but I had a couple of takeaways after yesterday’s meeting.
First, one of the challenges in mentorship and building strong entrepreneurs is that taking a fresh graduate and dropping them straight into a startup environment isn’t the best way to teach them how to build finished products and business models. Mentoring from industry leaders is great, but it often comes once every few weeks at best. With a Mifos organization that is functioning partly as a working software company and partly as a software talent incubator, we can fill a few gaps. We can give young developers something manageable to work on – a feature, or an API – rather than expecting them to learn everything all at once. We can also engage them in teams of more experienced developers to learn what it means to work as part of a software team and to learn first-hand from more experienced developers in a deeply engaged, high touch way.
Second, we can explore gradually getting broader experience for these developers by giving them freelance opportunities with other companies. Many software companies in Africa need help on a short-term basis (“get me a J2ME coder, stat!”) and we may be able to build some sustainability into the model by contracting out the developers learning within the organization and giving them some sort of revenue share arrangement.
Many thanks to Bridgette Sexton at Google for her insights and passion around building stronger developer communities in Africa. The above ideas blend a lot of what I heard from Bridgette with some of the ideas we’re exploring for Mifos in Africa.